It is a common misconception that Formula One (F1) cars have handbrakes, but this is not the case. F1 cars do not have a handbrake as their weight has to be reduced as much as possible to achieve the high speeds of the sport. Additionally, F1 drivers rarely need to stop on an incline, so the addition of a handbrake is deemed unnecessary.
So, how do F1 cars brake? F1 cars use two master cylinders, which are connected to the four brakes of the car. The brakes rely on friction, as well as electrical braking due to the hybrid electric motor and engine braking (resistance from the engine being in motion). The brake bias, which is the relationship of braking forces between the front and the rear wheel brakes, is adjustable via a dial on the steering wheel.
The brakes need to work in a wide temperature range, and the discs can get over 1000 degrees Celsius when braking. The brake ducts are used to keep the temperature of the brakes and tires at the optimal level. The brakes also have to withstand huge G-forces of around 5Gs when the car is slowing down, as the driver has to provide all the force for braking in F1.
Do F1 Cars Have Handbrakes?
Formula One (F1) is an exhilarating sport, and the cars are kitted out with cutting-edge technology to ensure peak performance. But, you may be wondering, do F1 cars have handbrakes? The answer is no, and in this blog post, we will dive deeper into why F1 cars don’t have handbrakes and how they brake.
Why F1 Cars Don’t Have A Handbrake
Formula One’s main priority is speed, and to achieve this, the car’s weight has to be reduced as much as possible. This is why F1 cars do not have handbrakes. Ferrari has even been known to change their cars’ paint scheme from glossy to matte to save a few grams of weight. F1 drivers don’t often have to stop on inclines, so a handbrake is not deemed necessary.
Braking Systems In F1
Braking in F1 is an essential component of winning. The brakes on an F1 car work on all four wheels, with two master cylinders as per regulations. The pressure in the front wheels cylinder goes through a brake line onto the front brake calipers, creating friction, while the rear braking system is more intricate.
F1 cars have three separate sources of braking at the rear: friction from the brakes, electrical braking due to the hybrid electric motor, and engine braking (resistance from the engine being in motion). These work in tandem with the Brake By Wire (BBW) system, which has an Electronic Control Unit (ECU). This provides a backup system, as well as braking stability for the drivers.
The cylinders have a bit of room to move and this allows the driver to change the brake bias. The brake bias is the relationship of braking forces between the front and the rear wheel brakes. This is adjustable on a dial on the steering wheel and usually, a Formula One car will run around 55 percent of the braking force through the front and the rest through the rear.
Calipers are mounted horizontally on regular cars, but calipers are attached towards the bottom on F1 cars to keep the center of gravity lower. This is done to allow the car to travel as quickly as possible. Calipers have a bleed nipple at the top to let air out, also known as bleeding the brakes.
Impact On The Driver
The driver has to provide all the force for braking in F1, using their body weight to get enough pressure for the car’s deceleration. This amounts to withstanding huge G-forces of around 5Gs and the deceleration causes 50 kilos of pressure on the driver’s head and helmet.
To conclude, F1 cars do not have handbrakes. While this would provide an extra level of safety, the weight of the device is too much for the car and would slow the car down. Instead, F1 cars have a complex braking system, which relies on friction, electrical braking and engine braking.